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An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. India
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Kaushik
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 8:33 pm Post subject: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. India Reply with quote

 Different  Indian  Biotope(East  &  North  East  India)
 Introduction
 Fresh  water   aquarist  has  changed  in  many  respects  over  the  years.  At  first  our  hobby  dealt  mainly  with  locally  available  native  species  but  now  tropical  and  subtropical  species  predominate.  In  these  days  a  lot  of  species  are  endangered  because  their  biotopes  are  thoughtlessly  destroyed,  not  by  hobbyist  rather  than  pollutions.  It’s  the  pollution  along  with  annihilation  of  their  natural  biotopes  that  is  to  blame.
 Altitude,  subsoil  characteristics,  vegetation  and  climate  can  all  give   a  single  body  of  water  say  a  river,  innumerably  different  aspects  as  goes  from  its  sources  to  its  mouth.  In  mountain  terrain  a  river  can  be  rocky,  clean,  cool  and  well  oxygenated  where  as   in  coastal  area  it  can  be  very  murky,  sluggish  and  oxygen  deficient.  Each  of  these  habitats   is  characterized  by  its  own  fish  fauna  including  species  that  can  also  adapt  to  a  variety  of  other  very  different  biotopes.  Many  species  however,  are  quite  specialized  to  one  habitat,  which  is  more  or  less  limited  not  only  spatially  but  also  in  other  ways.
 Some  of  the  habitats  have  absolutely  nothing  common  with  arrangement  of  an  aquarium.  It  could  be   crazy  to  represent  a  biotope  of  muddy,  turbid  puddles  in  an  aquarium  and  try  to  keep  fish  in  it.  No  aquarist  would  attempt  to  do  that.
 On  the  other  hand  there  are  biotopes  which  because  of  their  specific  characteristics(Clear  water,  vegetations,  stones,  bog  woods  etc.)do  challenges  aquarist  to  regards  them  as  a  model.
 Definition  
 A  biotope  aquarium  is  an  aquarium  that  is  set-up  to  simulate  a  natural  habitat.  In  one  word   it’s  a  mimic  of  nature.  The  fish,  plants,  water  chemistry,  and  decorations  similar  to  those  that  can  be  found  in  a  specific  natural  setting.  
 There  are  many  good  reasons  for  setting  up  an  aquarium  that  tries  to  simulate  the  natural  habitat  of  fishes.  The  foremost  is  probably  from  an  ecological  viewpoint.  With  the  destruction  of  the  tropical  rain-forests  worldwide  it  is  important  to  preserve  the  native  surroundings  of  our  fish  before  they  disappear  forever.
 Though  there  could  be  numerous  biotopes  specification  can  be  described  like  Nilgiri,  Sunderbans  etc.  However,  my  study  is  limited  to  the  geographical  proximity  of  North  Bengal,  Jharkhand,  South  Bengal  and  North  East  Indian  State  of  Manipur  only.  I     lived  in  these  areas  for  a  long  time  and  had  a  good  time  in  fishing  and  observing  nature.  Thereby  my  observations  and  experience  prompt  me  to  write  up  this  article.  All  my  recommendation  for  specific  biotopes   set-ups  are  mainly  based  up  on  assuming  that  each  species  has  its  vital  needs(pH,  Temperature,  water  movements  etc.).
 
 Different  Indian  Biotope(East  &  North  East  India)
 1  Himalayan  Streams
 2  Gangetic  Plains
    2.1  Paddy  Fields
    2.2  Ponds
 3  Great  Lagoons  of  Chilika  (Orrisa)
 4  Loktak  lake(Manipur)
 5  Mangrove  Forest  of  Sunderban
 
 1  Himalayan  Streams

 Mahananda  River,Sukna  Area,  Dist-  Darjeeling,  West  Bengal.
 Situated  at  the  Darjeeling  district  known  as  queen  of  hills  the  river  Mahanada  is  the  life  line  of  North  Bengal.  It  flows  through  4  district  of  West  Bengal  until  it  falls  into  Ganga  near  Farakka  Barage.
 Tank-The  tanks(35  gallon)  should  have  fine  sand  along  with  round  rocks  found  in  the  upper  stream  of  the  most  Himalayan  Rivers.  A  slow  water  movement  may  be  created  by  using  a  small  power  head  at  any  corner.  Lights   would  be  moderate  around  4  watts  per  Sq.ft.
 Water-  pH:   7.  dH:  6  –8.   Temp.  Summer  20-23  C,  Winter  12-15C
 Plants-Vacicularia   sp.,  Amblystigium  serpens,  Mnium  punctataum,  Philonotis  fontana
 Fishes-   Scarlet  Badis,  Dario  Dario,  Checker  barb  (Barbus  oligolepis),  Zebra  danios,  Tiger  loaches,  Indian  Zebra  Shrimp  Caridina  sp.,  Hara  Hara,  Devario  devario
 
 2  Gangetic  Plains
 2.1  Paddy  Fields

 Saheb  ganj   a  beautiful  location  on  the  banks  of  river  Ganga  surrounded  by  Chotanagpur  Hills  is  approximately  280  kms  from  Kolkata.  Rice  harvesting  is  the  prime  occupations  of  this  tribal  infested  area  also  called  the  rice  bowl  of  Jharkahand.
 Tank:  The  tank  should  be  a  35  gallon  (105  liter)  tank  with  bright  lighting(5  watts  per  Sq  ft).  For  substrate  laterite  covered  with  fine  yellow  quartz  gravels  (2-3mm.)  can  be  used.  Small  pebbles  and  a  few  piece  of  bogwood  can  be  used  for  decorations.
 Water-pH  6.5-7,  dH:  8,  kH:  6,   Temp.  Summer  25-28  C,  Winter  18-22C
 Plants  –  Dwarf  Vallesornia  ,  Hygrophilla  polysperma,  Anacharis,  Hydrilla
 Fishes-  Blue  Zebra,  One  spot  barb(Puntias  terio),  Puntis   sarana,  Dwarf  gourami  (Colisa  laila),  Chanda(Ambassis  ambassis),  Frail  Gourami  (Ctenops  nobilis),  Tiger  loaches,  Botia  Dario,  Bengal  eel(Ophisternon  bengalense),  Giant  Danio(  Devario  aequipinnatus),  Mystus  gulio,Puntis  gugario  
 
 2.2  Ponds
 Chakdaha  is  a  small  town  located  180  kms  from  Kolkata.  The  place  is  full  of  paddy  field  and  big  ponds.  
 Tank-This  could  be  another  35  gallon  or  more  tank  with  heavy  lighting  (8  watts  per  Sq  ft)  and  planting.  Substrate  2-4  mm  gravels  either  or  without  laterite  bed.  Driftwood,  Bamboo  sticks,  Round  stone  can  be  used  to  give  it  a  natural  aquascapes.  Even  waste  products  like  small  containers,  cement  caves,  Broken  glasses  or  earthen  pottery’s  can  be  stacked  at  the  bottom  which  act  as  a  natural  shelters  for  small  fishes  and  bottom  dwelling  loaches.
 Water-  pH:  7.0-7.7,  dH:  6-12,   Temp.Summer  28-35  C,  Winter  21-24  C
 Plants-  Hydrilla,  Indian  fern,  Vallesornia,  Tiger  Lotus  (Nymphaea  zenkeri),  Rotalla  indica,  Aponogeton,  Eleocharis,  Horn  wort  (Ceratopteris),Water  Wisteria(Hygrophilia  difformis).
 Fishes-Rosy  barb,  Giant  danios,   Half  beek,  Colisa  lalia  ,  Badis  badis,  Mystus  gulio,  Spiny  eels,  Climbing  perches,  Badis  blosyrus,  Loaches  (Botia  loharchata),  Brachydanio  rerio,  Rasbora  rasbora,  etc.
 
 4   Chilika  Lagoon,  Orrisa
 The   Chilika  Lagoon  on  the  Orissa  coast  is  a  natural  brackish-water  lagoon  of  marine  origin  bounded  by  lat.  19°28?–19°54?N  and  long.  85°05?–85°38?E,
 Spread  over  an  area  of  1,100-sq-km,  the  glorious  stretch  of  the  Chilika  is  Asia's  largest  brackish  water  lagoon  .  It  is  a  pear-shaped,  semi-enclosed  piece  of  pristine  nature  formed  by  a  recurved  barrier  spit  on  a  gently  sloping  coast.
 Tank-  Chilika  is  home  to  a  rich  variety  of  aquatic  fauna  and  flora,  Its  biotope  vary  from  one  end  to  another,  However  we  considering  a  the  eastern  parts  of  Chilika  where  a  number  of  south  bound  rivers  meets  here.  Lake  river  sand  mixed  with  shell  dust  can  create  an  ideal  biotope  close  to  the  lake  bottoms  with  Ignatius  rocks  can  be  used  to  create  small  riff.
 Water-pH:  8-9,  Salanity  1.6--1.9  ppt,  dH:  16-18,  Temp.Summer  21-24  C,Winter  19-20  C
 Plants-  Holodule  pinifolia,  Hallophila  ovalla,  Ruppia  mortima,  Aegiceras  corriculatum,  Potamogeton  nodosus,  Gracillaria  verrucosa,  Phyllospadix,
 Fishes-Crustacea  decopoda,  Lates  calcarifer,  Mystus  gulio,  Nematolosa  nasus,  Sphyraena  spp,  Caranx  sp,  Rabdosargus  sarba,  Kaklas(Xenentodon  cancilla),  Notopterus  notopterus,  Oxygaster  bacaila.,  Cutwaal(  Corica  soborna,  Pipe  fish(Ichthyocampus  carce)
 
 5   Loktak   Lake,  Manipur
 One  of  the  biggest  fresh  water  lake  at  the  North  East  extreme  of  India,  nestling  at  an  altitude  of  about  790  m  above  the  mean  sea  level  is  guarded  naturally  by  nine  ranges  of  hills.  Endemic  plants,  animals  and  scenic  beauties  regardless  of  any  exaggeration,  will  always  be  pristine.
 Tank-A  standard   40  gallon  or  55  gallon  tank  would  be  fine.  On  the  bottom  use  a  dark  substrate  with  no  sharp  edges.  A  depth  of  at  least  two  inches  could  be  used.  Mixing  some  laterite  would  be  beneficial  to  promote  plant  growth.  Driftwood  in  the  back  area  may  create  some  hiding  places.  
 With  the  large  amount  of  live  plants  the  lighting  should  be  bright  (5  watts  per  Sq.  ft),  
 Water-pH:  7.0-8.7,  dH:  8-10,  Temp.  Summer  21-24  C,  Winter  16-19  C
 Plants-Giant  Hygrophila,Nitelia  ,  Hydrilla,Water  Letuce(Pistia  stratiotes),Water  lilies(Nymphaea  stellata,  Lotus(Nelumbo  nucifera),  Alisma  plantago,  Sagittaria  sagittifolia,  Setaria  pallidefusea,  Oenanthe  javanica,  Alpinia  galanga  etc
 Fishes:  Anabus  testudinius,  Anguilla,  Pangba,  Tharak,  Ngashap.
 Snakeskin  gourami(  Trichogaster  pectoralis),  Threestripe  gourami(Trichopsis  schalleri),Tiger  loach,  Blackfin  eel,  Ctenops  nobilis,  Manipur  baril(Barilius  dogarsinghi)  Rasbora  trilineata,   Puntius  spilopterus,   Indostomus  paradoxus,   Stigmatogobius  sp.  Assam  Clownwels  (Gongota  cenia),  Clarias  batrachus,  Heteropneustes  fossilis  Somileptus  gongota,   Botia  histronica.,  Devario  manipurensis,  Chandramara  chandramara(Asian  cory),  Anabas  testudineus,  Manipur  Danio(Devario  acuticephala),  
 
 5   Mangrove  Forest  in  Sunderban  Areas
 Sunderbans  is  a   vast  tract  of  forest  and  saltwater  swamp  forming  the  lower  part  of  the  Ganges  Delta,  extending  about  260  km  along  the  Bay  of  Bengal  from  the  Hooghly  River  Estuary  (India)  to  the  Meghna  River  Estuary  in  Bangladesh.  The  whole  tract  reaches  inland  for  100-130  km.World  largest  delta  famous  for  it  Royal  Bengal  Tiger  also  a  home  of  numerous  faunas.  Mangrove  swamps  are  found  where  river  Ganga   and  Meghna  come  into  contact  with  the  Bay  of  Bengal.
 The  swamps  are  home  to  many  amphibious  species  of  fish  like  the  mudskippers,
 Tank-Coral  sand  makes  an  ideal  substrate  for  the  biotope,  not  only  will  it  look  attractive,  it  will  also  help  to  buffer  the  water  to  the  correct  pH.  The  mangrove  roots  can  be  created  by  using  long  branch  like  pieces  of  wood  inserted  into  the  substrate  vertically.  Lighting  would  be  moderately  low  (3  watts  per  sq.  ft)
 Water-  pH  7.2  –  8.0.  dH:  10  –  20.  Salanity1.66  -  1.015.  Temp.  Summer  28-32C,  Winter  24-28   C
 Plants-   Rhizophora  Apiculata,  Rhizophora  mucronata,  Xylocarpus  granatum,  Excaecaria  agallocha,  Heritiera  fomes,  Halodule  pinifolia,  Halophila  ovate.
 Fishes-  Archer  fish(Toxotes  aculator),  Tiger  Fish  (Datniodes  quadrifasciatus  ),D  Polota,  Scats,  Mud  skippers(  Boleophthalmus  dussumieri),  Mono  Angels,  Surgeon  fish,  Black  Bat  fish.  Boleophthalmus  boddarti,  Flowery  flouder  (Bothus  mancus)
 
 Source  of  Information’s  :-  
 Scientific   papers
 1  Singh  Chamapka:  Habitat  Heterogeneity  of  the  Loktak  Lake,  Manipur,  Current  Science,            Vol  88,No7,  Apr  2005
 2  Khwairakpam  Gajananda  and  Thokchom  Sundari  Chanu  :The  Fate  of  Loktak  Lake,ICAR  Journal,  Vol  65,no  3.2006
 3  S.V.A  .Chandrasekhar:Fish  Composition  of  Adra  lake,  West  Bengal,  Zoosprint  journal.Vol18,  no3,Feb  2003
 4  Sehgal,  K.L:  Cold  water  fish  and  fisheries  in  the  Indian  Himalayan  rivers  and  stream,  CIFRI/CWF,  Ref  7:12  p  2006
 Books  
 1  Handbook:  The  Freshwater  Fishes  of  India,  Pakistan,  Bangla  Desh,  Sri  Lanka  and              Burma  by  KC  Jayaram,  Zoological  Society  of   India,  Kolkata,1981
 2  Freshwater  Fishes  of  Bangladesh,  2nd  edition,  Zoological  Society  of  Bangladesh,University  of  Dhaka,  Dhaka,  2006
 3  Fish  Faunal  Resources  of  Sunderban  Estuarine  System  with  Special  Reference  to  the  Biology  of  Some  Commercially  Important  Species  by  R.A.  Khan,   Zoological  Survey  of  India,  Kolkata,  2003
 Net  Resources
 NIC  database,  Fishbase.org,     Mongabay.com
 *  The  Number  of  each  fauna  and  its  maximum  sizes  is  not  specified  here  keeping  in  view  of  aquarist  choice.  Also  the  compatibility  issues  is  not  high  lightened.
 *My  sincere  Gratitude  to  Beta(Admin)  for  his  scholastic  help  without  his  help  this  article  will  not  take  this  shape.  Also  Thanks  to  Tirthankar  Chattyopadhya(T2C2)  and  Shameek  Bhadra(Shameek)for  their  constant  encouragement.
 
 
 I’m  not  a  native  expert  and  I've  tried  my  best  to  make  it  authentic,  in  spite  of  best  efforts  there  may  be  some  mistakes.  I  take  full  responsibility  for  them.  None  the  less  similar  kind  of  studies  can  be  made  in  one’s  surrounding  area  and  I  expect  fellow  IAH.in  members  may  carried  out  this  type  of  survey  in  an  around  them,  so  that  the  fauna  and  flora  can  be  documented  which  are  more  or  less  at  the  verge  of  extinction.  May  be  your  little  labour(Study)can  help  the  species  to  live  long  and  by  the  way  it  is  not  necessary  that  you  should  have  a  zoology  or  botany  degree  to  carry  out  such  survey.  Finally  I  want  to  say  that  this  is  our  country   and  we  know  the  best  about  our   living  species.  Hope  you  all  like  my  little  efforts  and  pass  your  comments  so  that  the  above   said  species  future  will  be  secured.  Thanks
 Best  Regards
 Dr.Kaushik  Bose
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Kaushik
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 8:37 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 More  Photos  of  Different  Biotopes
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Kaushik
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 8:39 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 More  Photos  of  Different  Biotopes


Last edited by Kaushik on Fri Mar 27, 2009 7:31 pm; edited 1 time in total
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Vijai
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 8:54 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Kaushikda,
 
 This  should  find  place  in  the  articles  section,  please  check  with  the  admins.  I  wish  you  all  the  best  to  go  further  and  compile  this  work  as  a  documentary  with  more  data  and  coverage.
 
 Best  of  luck
 vijai
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Dan
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 9:17 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Hi  Dr.  Kaushik,
 
 Thanks  for  the  amazing  post.
 
 I  appreciate  it.
 
 regards
 
 Dan
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joevimal
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 9:36 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 amazing  details  and  nice  pictures  keep  up  the  good  work  dude
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shishirkamat
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 9:36 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Hi  Kaushik
 Nice  article,keep  up  with  the  good  work
 Regards
 Shishir  kamat
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alpha91
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 9:48 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Hi  Kaushik.  Really  good  post   Clapping
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mitra-hyderabad
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 9:49 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Hey  nice  write  up  Kaushik.  Would  love  to  see  it  as  an  article  along  with  the  pics.  
 Great  work.  Thumb Up
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bmukh
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 10:11 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Kaushik,
 Amazing  work  done.  Really  its  so  good  to  have  all  these  information  at  one  stop/one  go.  Tell  you  what,  now  will  really  think  of  replicating  one  biotope   Very Happy   Very Happy  .  The  danger  is,  will  disturb  you  in  the  process.  Just  one  type  I  think--lights  are  x  watts  per  gallon  you  mean  or  square  feet?
 
 The  Sunderban  mangrove  biotope  looks  most  appealing  for  me  as  of  now  Smile
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Tirtha C
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 10:36 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 I  replied  to  this  post  sometime  ago,  but  now  it's  missing....   Shocked  
 
 Koushik  Da.....  superb  effort  of  capturing  the  biotopes  information.  I  am  not  a  native  expert,  but  heard  in  North  East,  like  Nagaland,  Manipur,  Mijoram,  there  are  lots  of  species  which  are  not  explored  till  date.  But  all  these  places  are  full  of  water  bobies  and  streams.
 
 As  Vijai  Said,  talk  to  the  ADMINS  if  we  can  place  this  in  the  Article  section.  
 
 Thanks  again  for  this  nice  and  informative  writeup.   Thumb Up
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shameek
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PostPosted: Thu Mar 26, 2009 11:06 pm Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 kaushik  da,
 its  a  great  work,very  informative  Thumb Up  
 the  pictures  are  really  beautiful!  Smile
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sandeepraghuvanshi
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 27, 2009 9:34 am Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Nice  one  doc.  Thumb Up
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sandipan_ece
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 27, 2009 10:37 am Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Though  i  dont  have  much  knowledge  about  the  native  fishes.  
 Have  been  reading  the  article  for  the  last  15  mins.
 Thank  you   Kaushik-da  for  this  nice  informative  write  up.   Clapping  
 
 
 By  the  way  the  description  of  the  last  Photograph  (#6)  is  mis-spelt.  I  think  it  will  be  Sunderban  instead  of   "Subderban".
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Deba
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PostPosted: Fri Mar 27, 2009 10:41 am Post subject: Re: An Article on Different Indian Biotope(East & N.E. I Reply with quote

 Excellent  work.......  Thumb Up
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