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http://indianaquariumhobbyist.com/community/ :: View topic - Aquarium Bioload Waste Management
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Aquarium Bioload Waste Management

 
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essabee
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2010 11:54 am Post subject: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 Aquarium  bioload  consists  of  the  sum  total  of  all  living  organism  (  that  would  include  bacteria,  fungi,  algae,  plants,  invertebrates,  vertebrates)  contained  in  the  aquarium,  its  sump  and/or  filter,  riparium,  refugium  etc,
 
 The  wastes  are  the  egesta,  excreta,  exhalation,  dead  parts  and  bodies,  and  introduced  unused  materials  which  changes  or  tends  to  change  the  quality  of  the  water  or  the  substrate’s  surface  to  a  state  other  than  what  it  originally  was  or  planned.
 
 These  wastes  can  exist  as  settled  solids,  suspended  solids  in  the  water  column,  or  as  solutes  and  colloids.  A  waste  can  be  toxic,  harmful,  or  benign.  Wastes  can  be  noticeable  or  invisible.  Wastes,  when  they  start  accumulating,  require  to  be  removed  unless  you  want  its  accumulation  to  change  the  ecology  of  your  aquarium  from  what  you  have  planned.  
 
 Large  visible  wastes  like  dead  bodies  and  leaves  are  usually  hand  picked  and  removed.  Settled  solids  have  to  be  removed  by  vacuuming  or  moving  them  with  water  current  into  filter  intakes  where  they  await  periodic  removal  when  the  filter  is  cleaned.  Suspended  solids  and  colloids  require  mechanical  filtration  and  these  must  await  periodical  removal  at  the  routine  filter  cleaning  time.  Solutes  and  un-filterable  colloids  will  need  water  changes  for  their  removal,  these  water  changes  cannot  be  total  for  practical  reasons  and  therefore  only  reduces  the  concentration  of  these  type  of  waste  in  stages.
 
 We  have  got  over  the  easy  theoretical  part  of  the  waste  handling  and  now  must  engage  in  the  more  complicated  practical  side  of  it  –  when  and  how  much.  Before  we  answer  that  we  must  assess  the  rate  of  accumulation  of  wastes.
 
 Obviously  the  mass  of  the  bioload  naturally  causes  the  waste  and  it  follows  that  greater  the  bioload  higher  the  waste  production  but  that  is  not  the  case  sometimes.
 
 In  a  good  ecological  balance  the  different  sets  of  components  that  go  to  be  added  into  the  bioload  will  act  on  the  wastes  produced  by  each  other.  This  tends  to  reduce  the  over  all  production  of  waste.  The  final  accumulation  of  waste  is  the  result  of  misbalanced  state  of  the  ecology.  For  example  in  a  display  aquarium,  the  hobbyist  will  not  allow  mulm  to  accumulate  on  the  floor  because  it  destroys  the  display.  Now  if  this  accumulation  is  removed  you  also  remove  the  ideal  growth  area  of  a  set  of  bacteria  that  could  have  acted  on  this  waste  and  converted  it  into  nutrient  for  the  plant  and  alga.  The  removal  of  this  untidiness  results  in  lower  bioload  and  higher  waste  to  be  handled.
 
 So  we  find  that  certain  aquarium  practices  we  routinely  perform  will  also  have  an  effect  on  the  waste  build-up.
 
 Ecological  imbalances  also  occur  in  our  choice  of  inhabitants  for  our  aquarium.  We,  usually,  are  not  concerned  with  formation  of  a  balanced  ecology  for  our  aquarium.  Choice  of  inhabitants  and  materials  are  made  on  whim  of  the  moment  or  the  availability  of  the  inhabitants.  To  this  is  added  the  normal  hitch  hikers  and  volunteers.  So  it  appears  that  we  are  choosing  our  own  resultant  rates  of  waste  build-up  by  choosing  how  we  populate  our  tanks.
 
 One  great  factor  for  waste  creation  lies  in  our  manner  of  feeding  the  inhabitants  of  our  aquarium.  Improper  foods  will  remain  uneaten  just  as  overdoing  the  proper  food  too.  Even  feeding  enough  for  the  fishes  acceptance  too  can  to  lead  to  added  waste  as  the  fish  will  not  use  the  lesser  appetising  food  available  in  the  aquarium  from  wastes  of  other  inhabitants,  that  uneaten  waste  now  adds  to  the  accumulated  waste.
 
 Temperature  too  is  a  factor  in  waste  build  up.  At  lower  temperatures  bacterial  recycling  of  waste  reduces  as  does  growth  rates  of  fauna  leading  to  greater  waste  accumulation.  Just  like  temperature,  lower  light  intensity  will  lower  the  utilisation  of  wastes  by  the  flora  leading  to  greater  waste  accumulation.  
 
 Taking  all  such  factors  into  account,  it  is  hardly  possible  to  assess  the  rate  of  waste  build  up,  so  to  try  generalising  it,  or  reducing  it  into  a  mathematical  formula,  would  be  a  waste  of  time  and  effort.  Each  aquarium  with  its  peculiar  management  and  inhabitants  will  form  a  particular  type  of  waste  accumulation  that  requires  it  own  particular  routine  of  waste  management.
 
 It  stands  to  reason  that  most  of  the  unwanted  waste  produced  by  the  bioload  is  organic  in  nature.  Some  of  this  load  will  be  oxidised  and  broken  down  into  tolerable  chemicals  by  the  aerobic  bacteria  present  in  the  aquarium  and  reused  as  nutrient  source  by  the  flora  of  the  tank  (There  is  always  a  flora  in  every  tank  as  Nature  is  surely  going  to  sow  algae).  The  unbroken  organic  wastes  in  excess  to  the  amount  that  can  be  recycled  by  the  bacteria  mass  will  therefore  start  to  accumulate.  Now  this  can  be  in  form  of  solids,  settled  waste  and  suspended  in  water,  or  organic  matters  in  solution.
 
 The  settled  solid  waste  can  visibly  be  assessed  for  cleaning  and  requires  no  further  method.  The  suspended  waste  will  be  taken  care  of  by  the  filter  and  the  period  for  filter  cleaning  can  be  assessed  by  a  triggered  alarm  mechanism  which  is  set  to  be  activated  at  the  fall  of  the  output  pressure  below  a  certain  level.  This  leaves  us  to  deal  with  the  organic  solutes  in  the  water  column.
 
 By  their  very  nature  organic  solutes  can  be  oxidised  by  potassium  permanganate.  A  dilute  solution  of  KMnO4  when  added  to  a  sample  of  the  tank  water  will  definitely  change  colour  if  there  are  organic  solutes.  It  follows  that  different  concentrations  of  organic  solutes  will  produce  different  colour  variations.  Only  a  little  practical  work  is  required  to  come  up  with  the  concentration  of  the  KMnO4  solution  and  the  volume  to  be  added  to  a  given  volume  of  tank  sample  for  a  simple  test  which  will  indicate  the  requirement  for  water  change  and  the  percentage  thereof.
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retro_gk
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2010 2:04 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 What  is  the  baseline  colour  change  that  requires  a  water  change?
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essabee
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2010 5:47 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 Retro_gk,  for  these  protocols  to  be  decided  I  am  proposing  a  line  for  experimental  work.
 
 An  unplanted  existing  tank  of  feeder  guppies  appears  to  be  the  best  test  tank  to  use  for  the  test.  I  hate  having  to  use  a  live  fish  tank  for  experimental  purpose  but  the  subject  matter  makes  us  helpless  to  use  any  other  means  of  finding  what  is  necessary.  At  least  five  equal  sized  tank  with  equal  number  of  inhabitants  and  fed  with  equal  weight  of  pelleted  food  from  the  same  stock  food  will  be  required.  Keeping  one  tank  with  daily  water  change  as  control  and  the  room  temperature  even,  we  start  the  experiment.
 
   It  would  be  easy  to  make  a  known  dilute  solution  of  KMnO4.  Now  taking  a  small  amount  of  very  fine  organic  matter  in  a  test-tube  and  then  adding  distilled  water  to  it  to  make  it  into  a  5ml  sample  we  add  a  drop  at  a  time  of  KMnO4  solution  to  the  mixture  for  as  many  times  it  completely  reduces.  Naturally  the  last  drop  will  leave  it  a  little  more  reddish.
 
   Now  using  this  decanted  colour,  we  find  out  how  with  time  the  5ml  samples  of  tank  water  requires  greater  number  of  drops  of  the  KMnO4  solution,  we  can  plot  the  accumulation  of  organic  solutes.  Doing  Nitrogen  and  Phosphorous  test  along  with  this  and  plotting  all  the  three  together  against  time  will  give  us  an  better  understanding  of  the  waste  accumulation.
 
 Keeping  a  fine  check  on  the  health  of  the  fishes  we  can  arrive  at  the  point  where  the  accumulation  of  waste  has  started  to  affect  the  fish.  Water  change  before  this  point  will  not  help.  At  this  point  only  2  of  the  non-control  tanks  should  be  subject  to  water  change  while  with  the  other  two  we  persist  without  water  change.
 
 I  am  too  far  out  on  a  limb  to  predict  the  course  of  the  proposed  experiment  without  any  more  data.
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garothmaan
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PostPosted: Fri Jan 01, 2010 6:33 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEKkkk!  Shocked  all  that  in  taaaaank
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essabee
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2010 1:29 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

                                                   
garothmaan  wrote  (View  Post):                

 EEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEEKkkk!  Shocked  all  that  in  taaaaank
                 

 
 
 Smile  

 
 Garothmaan,  I  would  have  subsituted  the  following  :-
 
 
                                                 
essabee  wrote  (View  Post):                

 It  stands  to  reason  that  most  of  the  unwanted  waste  produced  by  the  bioload  is  organic  in  nature.  Some  of  this  load  will  be  oxidised  and  broken  down  into  tolerable  chemicals  by  the  aerobic  bacteria  present  in  the  aquarium  and  reused  as  nutrient  source  by  the  flora  of  the  tank  (There  is  always  a  flora  in  every  tank  as  Nature  is  surely  going  to  sow  algae).  The  unbroken  organic  wastes  in  excess  to  the  amount  that  can  be  recycled  by  the  bacteria  mass  will  therefore  start  to  accumulate.  Now  this  can  be  in  form  of  solids,  settled  waste  and  suspended  in  water,  or  organic  matters  in  solution.
 
 The  settled  solid  waste  can  visibly  be  assessed  for  cleaning  and  requires  no  further  method.  The  suspended  waste  will  be  taken  care  of  by  the  filter  and  the  period  for  filter  cleaning  can  be  assessed  by  a  triggered  alarm  mechanism  which  is  set  to  be  activated  at  the  fall  of  the  output  pressure  below  a  certain  level.  This  leaves  us  to  deal  with  the  organic  solutes  in  the  water  column.
 
 By  their  very  nature  organic  solutes  can  be  oxidised  by  potassium  permanganate.  A  dilute  solution  of  KMnO4  when  added  to  a  sample  of  the  tank  water  will  definitely  change  colour  if  there  are  organic  solutes.  It  follows  that  different  concentrations  of  organic  solutes  will  produce  different  colour  variations.  Only  a  little  practical  work  is  required  to  come  up  with  the  concentration  of  the  KMnO4  solution  and  the  volume  to  be  added  to  a  given  volume  of  tank  sample  for  a  simple  test  which  will  indicate  the  requirement  for  water  change  and  the  percentage  thereof.                

 
 With  :-
 
 We  human  beings  having  broken  ourselves  into  living  by  the  routines  of  the  Day,  Week,  Month,  and  Year  will  naturally  form  a  routine  of  waste  removal  similarly.  So  the  large  visible  waste  gets  removed  daily,  water  changes  are  either  daily  to  weekly,  filter  cleaning  is  from  monthly  to  half-yearly  but  bickering  about  aquarium  maintenances  on  the  various  forums  is  endlessly  everyday  without  fixing  some  means  by  which  we  can  find  some  protocols.
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retro_gk
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2010 2:18 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 The  problem  is  KMnO4  will  oxidise  any  available  substrate,  not  just  organic.  
 
 e.g.  10  gallon  bare  bottom  tank  housing  10  guppies,  with  a  sponge  filter  and  2x  daily  feeding  of  pellet  food.  100  gallon  heavily  planted  tank,  housing  shrimp  and  column  dosed.
 
 Both  will  cause  a  colour  change  when  you  add  KMnO4.  Also,  the  colour  change  is  not  instantaneous.  It  is  also  affected  by  temperature  and  pH.
 
 Then,  what  level  of  organic  waste  will  affect  fish  varies  too  widely  to  be  of  any  practical  use.  You  have  to  specifically  test  for  ammonia,  nitrite  and  nitrate.  DoC  will  not  affect  fish  to  the  extent  ammonia  will.
 
 In  a  well  cycled  tank,  zero  ammonia  and  nitrite,  my  water  change  regimen  (10-50%  weekly,  depending  on  bioload)  keeps  nitrates  under  10  ppm.  I've  had  this  value  climb  to  over  150  ppm  (when  on  vacation  with  fish  left  to  the  tender  mercies  of  house  mates)  with  no  apparent  effect  on  the  fish.  I've  had  brooding  Cyprichromis  hold  to  term  under  such  conditions  with  no  ill  effects  on  parents  or  fry.
 
 If  you  must  test,  test  specifically  for  nitrogenous  wastes  using  a  test  strip  or  kit.
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essabee
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PostPosted: Sat Jan 02, 2010 6:34 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 Don't  worry  Retro_gk,  when  we  experiment  we  will  do  it  correctly,  unhurriedly,  and  without  leaving  out  any  loose  ends  which  we  can  address.  First  an  exploratory  experiment  which  will  demonstrate  the  practical  difficulties  and  indicate  the  needed  directions  to  pay  attention  on,  followed  by  more  detailed  experiments,  differing  in  subject  organisms  and  filter  systems  to  find  the  varying  parameters.  Its  not  a  one  time  job  for  a  single  person  search.  A  lot  of  time,  attention,  and  persons  are  involved  in  the  project,  not  to  say  the  least  funds.  
 
 The  project  is  being  set  up  for  post  graduate  zoology  students,  and  research  students,  under  aegis  of  their  HOD,  with  funds  from  the  University.  My  personal  position  shall  be  that  of  an  observer  (  that  too  only  because  the  HOD  is  an  old  friend  and  I  put  this  bee  into  his  bonnet).
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garothmaan
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 05, 2010 3:42 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

                                                   
retro_gk  wrote  (View  Post):                
The  problem  is  KMnO4  will  oxidise  any  available  substrate,  not  just  organic.  
 
 In  a  well  cycled  tank,  zero  ammonia  and  nitrite,  my  water  change  regimen  (10-50%  weekly,  depending  on  bioload)  keeps  nitrates  under  10  ppm.  I've  had  this  value  climb  to  over  150  ppm  (when  on  vacation  with  fish  left  to  the  tender  mercies  of  house  mates)  with  no  apparent  effect  on  the  fish.  I've  had  brooding  Cyprichromis  hold  to  term  under  such  conditions  with  no  ill  effects  on  parents  or  fry.
 
 If  you  must  test,  test  specifically  for  nitrogenous  wastes  using  a  test  strip  or  kit.                

 
 
 and  not  only  that,  but  all  the  white  stuff  will  become  yellow...  Crying or Very sad
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saurabh_m
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PostPosted: Tue Jan 05, 2010 7:03 pm Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

                                                   
essabee  wrote  (View  Post):                

 The  suspended  waste  will  be  taken  care  of  by  the  filter  and  the  period  for  filter  cleaning  can  be  assessed  by  a  triggered  alarm  mechanism  which  is  set  to  be  activated  at  the  fall  of  the  output  pressure  below  a  certain  level.                

 
 Sorry  for  for  the  Stupid  question.
 I  am  using  a  matten  filter  stuffed  with  plastic  meshes  (used  for  cleaning  utensils).  The  outer  sponge  of  my  filter  is  choked,  and  the  water  somehow  manages  to  overflow  the  filter,  into  the  tank.  I  do  not  want  to  clean  the  filter  for  the  fear  of  losing  the  bacteria.  The  pressure  is  down,  but  still  the  system  is  working  fine.  Do  I  need  to  clean  it.  Or  I  think  not  all  filters  need  to  be  cleaned,  when  pressure  is  down.
 
 
 P.S.  :  Essabee,  please  write  a  book,  I've  reading  your  articles,  they  are  very  exiting  to  read.
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essabee
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PostPosted: Wed Jan 06, 2010 5:15 am Post subject: Re: Aquarium Bioload Waste Management Reply with quote

 Saurabh,  you  will  have  to  clean  your  filter  so  do  it  by  rinsing  the  sponge  in  a  bucket  full  of  tank  water.
 
 Yes  you  will  lose  a  lot  of  beneficial  bacteria,  but  not  all.  These  bacteria  can  double  their  numbers  every  day,  so  they  can  build  up  very  fast.  All  you  need  to  do  is  do  a  50%  water  change  on  the  same  day  after  you  have  cleaned  and  reset  up  your  filter,  and  try  not  to  feed  your  fish  for  the  next  3  days.  All  will  be  well.
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